Colombia: In-depth PESTLE Insights

This PESTLE country analysis report on Colombia provides a holistic view of the country, with insightful analysis of current and future issues, supplemented with relevant quantitative data to support trend analysis.

Synopsis

- Understand the political system in Colombia through analysis of key figures in the country and governance indicators.

- Understand the economic situation in Colombia through a balanced assessment of core macroeconomic issues.

- Understand customer demographics in Colombia through analysis of income distribution and the rural-urban split, as well as healthcare and education.

- Understand the technological landscape in Colombia through analysis of relevant laws and policies, as well as patents data.

- Understand the legal landscape in Colombia through analysis of the judicial system as well as performance of the legal indicators

- Understand the environmental landscape in Colombia through analysis of the environmental regulations and the performance of the environmetal indicators

Scope

- The political landscape section discusses the evolution of the political scenario in Colombia, as well as the country's economic, social, foreign, and defense policies. The section also discusses the country's performance according to World Bank Governance Indicators.

- The economic landscape section outlines the evolution of Colombia's economy, as well as the country's performance in terms of GDP growth, composition by sector (agriculture, industry, and services), fiscal situation, international investment position, monetary situation, credit disbursement, banking sector, and employment."

- The social landscape section analyzes the government's social welfare policies, as well as the country's performance in terms of healthcare, income distribution, and education.

Reasons to buy

- What is the outlook in Colombia in terms of political stability, policies towards business, and the popularity of the government?

- How does Colombia perform in terms of GDP growth, its fiscal situation, international investment position, monetary situation, and employment?

- How does Colombia perform in terms of healthcare, income distribution, and education?

- How does Colombia perform in terms of technology-intensive sectors like IT, life sciences, and R&D expenditure trends?

Companies mentioned

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Overview 2

Catalyst 2

Summary 2

Key findings 2

PESTLE highlights 5

Key fundamentals 6

Key Facts and Geographic Location 14

Key ...

Table of Contents

Overview 2

Catalyst 2

Summary 2

Key findings 2

PESTLE highlights 5

Key fundamentals 6

Key Facts and Geographic Location 14

Key facts 14

Geographical location 15

PESTLE Analysis 16

Summary 16

Political analysis 18

Overview 18

Current strengths 19

Current challenges 20

Future prospects 21

Future risks 21

Economic analysis 23

Overview 23

Current strengths 23

Current challenges 28

Future prospects 31

Future risks 36

Social analysis 40

Overview 40

Current strengths 40

Current challenges 41

Future prospects 45

Future risks 46

Technological analysis 49

Overview 49

Current strengths 49

Current challenges 49

Future prospects 51

Future risks 52

Legal analysis 54

Overview 54

Current strengths 54

Current challenges 55

Future prospects 57

Future risks 57

Environmental analysis 58

Overview 58

Current strengths 58

Current challenges 59

Future prospects 59

Future risks 60

Political Landscape 62

Summary 62

Evolution 62

Structure and policies 64

Key political figures 64

Structure of government 64

Key political parties 64

Composition of government 66

Key policies 66

Performance 68

Governance indicators 68

Outlook 69

Economic Landscape 70

Summary 70

Evolution 70

Structure and policies 71

Financial authorities and regulators 71

Stock markets 72

Performance 73

GDP and growth rate 73

Fiscal situation 77

Exports and imports 77

Current account 78

Debt situation 79

International investment position 79

Credit rating 79

Monetary situation 79

Inflation 79

Interest rate 80

Employment 81

Outlook 83

Social Landscape 84

Summary 84

Evolution 84

Structure and policies 84

Demographic composition 84

Education 86

Healthcare 86

Social welfare 87

Performance 88

Healthcare 88

Education 89

Income distribution 89

Outlook 90

Technology Landscape 91

Summary 91

Evolution 91

Structure and policies 91

Innovation governance 91

Intellectual property 92

Performance 92

Telecommunications 92

R&D expenditure 93

Outlook 94

Legal Landscape 95

Summary 95

Evolution 95

Structure and policies 95

Judicial system 95

Legislation affecting business 96

Tax regulations 96

Performance 96

Effectiveness of the legal system 96

Outlook 97

Environmental Landscape 98

Summary 98

Evolution 98

Structure and policies 98

Environmental regulations 98

Participation in global efforts, agreements, and pacts 99

Performance 99

Environmental impact 99

Outlook 100

Appendix 102

ISO codes of selected countries 102

Ask the analyst 103

Disclaimer 103

List of Tables

List of Tables

Table 1: Colombia – Key Fundamentals, 2015–2022f 6

Table 2: Colombia – Key Facts, 2018 15

Table 3: Analysis of Colombia’s Political ...

List of Tables

Table 1: Colombia – Key Fundamentals, 2015–2022f 6

Table 2: Colombia – Key Facts, 2018 15

Table 3: Analysis of Colombia’s Political Landscape 20

Table 4: Analysis of the Colombian Economy 24

Table 5: Analysis of Colombia’s Social System 41

Table 6: Analysis of Colombia’s Technological Landscape 50

Table 7: Frequency of Internet Use in Colombia (Number of People in Thousands), 2017 53

Table 8: Holdings of ICT Goods in Micro-establishments According to Economic Activities in Colombia, 2016 54

Table 9: Analysis of Colombia’s Legal Landscape 55

Table 10: Analysis of Colombia’s Environmental Landscape 59

Table 11: Banco de la República Policy Interest Rate, 2016–2018 82

Table 12: Mid-year Population by Age in Colombia (% by Gender), 2017 86

Table 13: Patents Granted by US Patent and Trademark Office, 2010–2015 93

List of Figures

List of Figures

Figure 1: Map of Colombia 16

Figure 2: Petroleum Production and Consumption in Colombia (1,000 Barrels per Day), 1980–2017 25

Figure 3: ...

List of Figures

Figure 1: Map of Colombia 16

Figure 2: Petroleum Production and Consumption in Colombia (1,000 Barrels per Day), 1980–2017 25

Figure 3: Primary Coal Production and Consumption in Colombia (Million Tons), 1980–2016 26

Figure 4: Natural Gas Production and Consumption in Colombia (Billion Standard Cubic Meters), 2013–2017 27

Figure 5: External Debt Balance Guaranteed by the Central Government ($ Billion), 1990–2017 28

Figure 6: Gross Capital Formation in Colombia (COP Trillion/Constant Prices), 2011–2016 29

Figure 7: Infrastructure Quality in Comparison to the OECD, 2015 30

Figure 8: Quality of Transport Infrastructure in Colombia, Logistics Performance Index, 2018 31

Figure 9: Tax Revenue as a Percentage of GDP, 2016 32

Figure 10: Expanding Banking Business (Commercial Banks/Borrowers), 2008–2017 33

Figure 11: Depositors with the Commercial Banks (Number of Depositors), 2008–2017 34

Figure 12: Growing Domestic Credit (% of GDP), 2007–2016 35

Figure 13: Agricultural Land Area (1,000 Square Kilometers/% of Land Area), 2006–2015 36

Figure 14: Increasing Agricultural Output (Value Added per Worker), 2008–2017 37

Figure 15: Current Account Balance ($ Billion/% of GDP), 2008–2017 38

Figure 16: Bank Nonperforming Loans to Total Gross Loans (%), 2008–2017 39

Figure 17: Bank Capital to Assets Ratio (%), 2018–2017 40

Figure 18: Poverty Headcount Ratio at National Poverty Lines (% of Population), 2016 43

Figure 19: Relative Income Poverty by Age Group (%), 2013–2014 44

Figure 20: Informal and Formal Employment in Colombia (Million Persons/%), 2008–2018 45

Figure 21: Protection of Permanent Workers Against Individual and Collective Dismissals, 2014 46

Figure 22: Healthcare Expenditure in Colombia ($/% of GDP), 2007–2016 47

Figure 23: Distribution of Income by Population Quintile in Colombia (%), 2016 48

Figure 24: Income Inequality in Select Nations from South America (%), 2016 49

Figure 25: R&D Intensity (%) in Selected Latin American Countries, 2015 51

Figure 26: Innovation in the Manufacturing Sector as a Percentage of All Manufacturing Firms, 2015 52

Figure 27: Product Market Regulations, 2014 57

Figure 28: Natural Resources Rents (% of GDP), 2007–2016 61

Figure 29: Growing Urbanization and Pollution Level (Micrograms per Cubic Meter/%), 2010–2017 62

Figure 30: Colombia – Key Political Events Timeline 64

Figure 31: Key Political Figures in Colombia 65

Figure 32: Composition of the Chamber of Representatives (Lower House) after the 2018 Congressional Elections 67

Figure 33: Historical GDP Growth Rate in Colombia (%), 2008–2017 72

Figure 34: GDP and GDP Growth Rate in Colombia ($ Billion/%), 2013–2022f 74

Figure 35: GDP Composition by Sectors, 2017 75

Figure 36: Agriculture Output of Colombia (CPL Trillion/%), 2012–2017 76

Figure 37: Industrial Output of Colombia (CPL Trillion/%), 2012–2017 77

Figure 38: Services Output of Colombia (CPL Trillion/%), 2012–2017 78

Figure 39: External Trade of Colombia ($ Billion), 2013–2017 79

Figure 40: Consumer Price Index and Consumer Price Index-based Inflation in Colombia, 2012–2022f 81

Figure 41: Unemployment and Rate of Unemployment in Colombia (Millions/%), 2012–2022f 83

Figure 42: Major Religions in Colombia, 2014 87

Figure 43: Total Expenditure on Healthcare in Colombia ($ Billion/%), 2008–2017 89

Figure 44: Public Expenditure on Education in Colombia ($ Billion/%), 2007–2016 90

Figure 45: Internet Users in Colombia (Million Users/%), 2008–2017 94

Figure 46: Research and Development Expenditure in Colombia (% of GDP), 2006–2015 95

Figure 47: CO2 Emission in Colombia (Tons/%), 2008–2015 101

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