Japan: In-depth PESTLE Insights

This PEST country analysis report on Japan provides a holistic view of the country, with insightful analysis of current and future issues, supplemented with relevant quantitative data to support trend analysis.

Key Highlights

- The political landscape section discusses the evolution of the political scenario in Japan, as well as the country's economic, social, foreign, and defense policies. The section also discusses the country's performance according to World Bank Governance Indicators.

- The economic landscape section outlines the evolution of Japan's economy, as well as the country's performance in terms of GDP growth, composition by sector (agriculture, industry, and services), fiscal situation, international investment position, monetary situation, credit disbursement, banking sector, and employment."

- The social landscape section analyzes the government's social welfare policies, as well as the country's performance in terms of healthcare, income distribution, and education.

Scope

- Understand the political system in Japan through analysis of key figures in the country and governance indicators.

- Understand the economic situation in Japan through a balanced assessment of core macroeconomic issues.

- Understand customer demographics in Japan through analysis of income distribution and the rural-urban split, as well as healthcare and education.

- Understand the technological landscape in Japan through analysis of relevant laws and policies, as well as patents data.

Reasons to buy

- What is the outlook in Japan in terms of political stability, policies towards business, and the popularity of the government?

- How does Japan perform in terms of GDP growth, its fiscal situation, international investment position, monetary situation, and employment?

- How does Japan perform in terms of healthcare, income distribution, and education?

- How does Japan perform in terms of technology-intensive sectors like IT, life sciences, and R&D expenditure trends?

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Overview 2

Catalyst 2

Summary 2

Key findings 2

PESTLE highlights 4

Key fundamentals 6

Key Facts and Geographic Location 15

Key ...

Table of Contents

Overview 2

Catalyst 2

Summary 2

Key findings 2

PESTLE highlights 4

Key fundamentals 6

Key Facts and Geographic Location 15

Key facts 15

Geographic location 16

PESTLE Analysis 17

Summary 17

Political analysis 18

Overview 18

Current strengths 18

Current challenges 19

Future prospects 19

Future risks 20

Economic analysis 22

Overview 22

Current strengths 22

Current challenges 24

Future prospects 31

Future risks 34

Social analysis 38

Overview 38

Current strengths 38

Current challenges 39

Future prospects 42

Future risks 44

Technological analysis 46

Overview 46

Current strengths 46

Current challenges 50

Future prospects 52

Future risks 53

Legal analysis 55

Overview 55

Current strengths 55

Current challenges 56

Future prospects 56

Future risks 58

Environmental analysis 59

Overview 59

Current strengths 59

Current challenges 60

Future prospects 62

Future risks 63

Political Landscape 64

Summary 64

Evolution 64

Pre-1945 64

1945–93 65

1993–2017 65

Structure and policies 66

Key political figures 66

Structure of government 67

Structure of legislature 68

Key policies 69

Performance 70

Governance indicators 70

Outlook 71

Economic Landscape 72

Summary 72

Evolution 72

Pre-1950 72

1950–90 72

1990–2017 73

Structure and policies 74

Financial system 74

Stock markets 75

Insurance 75

Performance 75

GDP and growth rate 75

Fiscal situation 80

International investment position 81

Monetary situation 81

Key monetary indicators 82

Banking sector 82

Unemployment 83

Outlook 83

Social Landscape 84

Summary 84

Evolution 84

Structure and policies 84

Demographic composition 84

Education 85

Healthcare 86

Social welfare 86

Performance 86

Healthcare 86

Education 87

Outlook 88

Technological Landscape 89

Summary 89

Evolution 89

Structure and policies 89

Intellectual property 89

Performance 90

Opportunity sectors 90

Outlook 91

Legal Landscape 92

Summary 92

Evolution 92

Structure and policies 92

Judicial system 92

Performance 94

Effectiveness of the legal system 94

Legal indicators 94

Outlook 94

Environmental Landscape 95

Summary 95

Evolution 95

Structure and policies 95

Environmental regulations 95

Environmental actions 96

Performance 96

Environmental impact 96

Outlook 97

Appendix 98

Ask the analyst 99

Disclaimer 99

List of Tables

List of Tables

Table 1: Japan – Key Fundamentals, 2015–2022f 6

Table 2: Japan – Key Facts, 2018 15

Table 3: Analysis of Japan’s Political ...

List of Tables

Table 1: Japan – Key Fundamentals, 2015–2022f 6

Table 2: Japan – Key Facts, 2018 15

Table 3: Analysis of Japan’s Political Landscape 18

Table 4: Analysis of Japan’s Economic Landscape 22

Table 5: Average Monthly Total Cash Earnings Per Regular Employee (in thousands of yen) 28

Table 6: Japanese Government Bonds held by the Bank of Japan as of July 2018 35

Table 7: Analysis of Japan’s Social Landscape 38

Table 8: Analysis of Japan’s Technological Landscape 46

Table 9: Analysis of Japan’s Legal Landscape 55

Table 10: Analysis of Japan’s Environmental Landscape 59

Table 11: Mid-year Population by Age (Millions), 2017 85

Table 12: Patents Received from the US Patent and Trademark Office, 2010–15 90

List of Figures

List of Figures

Figure 1: Map of Japan 16

Figure 2: Business and Consumer Confidence Index, January 2005 to June 2018 23

Figure 3: Gross ...

List of Figures

Figure 1: Map of Japan 16

Figure 2: Business and Consumer Confidence Index, January 2005 to June 2018 23

Figure 3: Gross General Government Debt in Selected Countries, 2017 24

Figure 4: General Government Balance - 2016 25

Figure 5: Substantial Gap Between Central Government Expenditure and Tax Revenue, 2008–2017 26

Figure 6: Farm Household Population, 2009–2015 27

Figure 7: Index of Consumption Expenditure Level, 2013–2016 29

Figure 8: Labor Productivity Growth (Output per Hour of Work), 1985–2000, 2000–2007, 2007–2015 30

Figure 9: Firm Productivity - Value Added per Person Employed in 2013 31

Figure 10: Exports of Goods and Services (% of GDP), 2000–2017 32

Figure 11: Yearly Change in Exports and Exports Performance Index, 2006–2016 33

Figure 12: Corporate Profits Rising while Exchange Rate Depreciating, Q12012 - Q42016 34

Figure 13: Inflationary Trend in Japan, 2000–2017 35

Figure 14: Self-employed with Employees (as a Share of Employed Persons) in 2015 37

Figure 15: Hospital Beds per 1,000 Inhabitants – 2017 39

Figure 16: Age Dependency Ratio (% of Working Age Population), 2000–2017 40

Figure 17: Elderly-related Social Spending, 2020–2060 41

Figure 18: Japan's Well-being Performance - 2016 42

Figure 19: Tertiary Education (ge 25-34) Attainment in 2015 and PISA Result 2015 43

Figure 20: Gini Coefficient, 2007, 2010, 2015 44

Figure 21: Relative Poverty Rate in 2014 or Latest Year Available 45

Figure 22: Researchers per Thousand Total Employment – 2016 47

Figure 23: High-technology Exports (% of Manufactured Exports), 2016 48

Figure 24: R&D Expenditure (as Percentage of GDP) of OECD Countries in 2016 49

Figure 25: Direct Government Funding of Business R&D and Tax Incentives for R&D, 2015 51

Figure 26: Business Enterprise R&D Expenditure by Size, 2011–2015 52

Figure 27: Triadic Patent Families - 2015 53

Figure 28: Tertiary Graduates in the Natural Sciences, Engineering and ICTs (NSE & ICT) 54

Figure 29: Tax Wedge (% of Labor Cost) – 2017 57

Figure 30: Product Market Regulations, 2013 58

Figure 31: Electric Power Generated by New and Renewable Energy, 1990–2015 60

Figure 32: Environmental Taxes, 2014 61

Figure 33: R&D Budgets for Energy and the Environment for 2013 or the latest year 62

Figure 34: CO2 Prices Implicit in Diesel and Petrol Excise Taxes, Q1 2013 63

Figure 35: Japan – key Political Events Since Independence 65

Figure 36: Japan – Key Political Figures 67

Figure 37: Japan – Structure of Government 68

Figure 38: Japan – Composition of Lower House of Parliament 69

Figure 39: Japan’s Historical GDP Growth, 2006–2017 74

Figure 40: GDP and GDP Growth Rate in Japan, 2012–2022f 76

Figure 41: GDP Composition by Sector in Japan, 2016 77

Figure 42: Agricultural output of Japan, 2011–2016 78

Figure 43: Industrial Output of Japan, 2011–16 79

Figure 44: Services Output of Japan, 2011–2016 80

Figure 45: Japan’s External Trade , 2012–2017f 81

Figure 46: CPI and CPI-based inflation in Japan, 2011–2022f 82

Figure 47: Unemployment in Japan, 2011–2022f 83

Figure 48: Expenditure on Healthcare in Japan, 2009–2017 87

Figure 49: Expenditure on Education in Japan, 2011-16 88

Figure 50: Internet Users and Penetration, 2012–2016 91

Figure 51: Japan – Judicial Structure 93

Figure 52: Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Japan, 2008–15 97

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